Monday, June 10, 2013

Gaming and Dreams

Research by Gackenback et al (2007) found that the continuity hypothesis of dreaming was supported with gamers. That is, that what people do in the day will show up as imagery in their dreams. The more emotionally salient the waking day events, the more likely people will dream about the events as imagery. Can there be any long-term effects of this phenomena with respect to gaming and if so, how might that occur? Also, are there benefits or detriments expected from this?

62 comments:

  1. Long-term effects of this phenomena most likely depend on the content of the gaming imagery. If games are extremely violent then it is likely that these events would be emotional to the gamer and influence their dream imagery. If a gamer is playing violent games in their waking life and reliving them in their dream imagery then I believe there is the potential for these violent situations to become blasé and normal to the gamer. The gamer could become immune to the goriness of it all due to extent that they are seeing these violent images. This could then have the potential to influence their morals as a person, making them more violent without them even being aware of the change. In this scenario, the continuity hypothesis with respect to gaming is a detriment to the gamer. However, I believe that there are situations where gaming and the continuity hypothesis could be a benefit. Gaming may expose you to various situations and people that you may not have experienced in waking life. While you are asleep you are again thinking of these situations and people and your dreaming mind approaches them with many problem-solving angles. You could therefore dream of solutions to vexing problems experienced in the game which you may not have come to in your waking life. If you were to then experience a similar situation at a later date in waking day you would have a ready-made solution due to your gaming experience. This then could be a benefit of this phenomenon. Therefore, I believe that this phenomenon can have both beneficial and detrimental long-term effects, depending on the gaming imagery experienced.

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    1. I agree with the above comments of Carly Barrett. In my opinion there are a lot of violent video games that young children are playing today. Even though there are restrictions on video games this does not stop young children from playing them. Having said this, waking day events will be high in emotions due to the violence in the video games, which will then be transferred to their dream imagery. This would be a detriment because it would influence their morals, like Carly states. Violence will then become a norm for that person. Since younger children are playing these violent video games I wonder if this will effect their childhood in comparison to an adult playing these games?
      On the other hand, video games could be a benefit for some people. I only looked at the negative side with video games but Carly states a really good point. I agree that some video games may be beneficial. A lot of video games allow you to learn new things, such as sports, and this may place you in a life situation that you’ve never experienced. This could be useful in your waking day life, which can prepare you for certain events to come. Therefore, I completely agree with all of Carly Barrett’s comments and I believe that depending on what kind of video game is played; it can have either positive or negative outcomes on individuals’ dream imagery.
      I do not play video games but I wonder for those who do, if they have experienced the continuity hypothesis of dreaming with their video game experiences.

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    2. Building on Carly's comments regarding violent imagery in waking life and dreams; I have read that people experience an increase in dopamine while playing video games, and I wonder if this happens also while people dream?
      If this were the case, I could see the potential harm in terms of addiction if the brain was constantly flooded with dopamine. As well, I am unsure of the mechanics of certain disorders, but I wonder again if a flood of dopamine could lead to certain mental health disorders in certain people?

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    3. Courtney FriedrichJune 10, 2013 at 10:38 AM

      I agree with Carly's comments from above that the long-term effects will depend on the type of video game that is being played. The majority of games unfortunately tend to be violent or negative games, and this can have a negative effect on the individual. This individual will see violence as a fun thing, and when they dream this violence will no longer scare them. This can result in a change of behaviour and morals because the individual will no longer see the violence as a bad thing but rather a "cool thing" they saw in the video game. Unfortunately more and more parents are beginning to ignore the age suggestions on the games, and this may mean that more children will be playing the violent games and in turn have their dreams and morals adjusted.

      However, not all video games are bad. There are many games that involve positive outcomes, and even learning experiences. These games may be reflected in their dreams positively, allowing them to be a positive and educational experience for the gamer. Thus, I think it is very safe to conclude that the effects of the game will depend greatly on the type of game being played.

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    4. As Carly, Samantha, Marsha, and Courtney mentioned about violent video games, I agree that how these games might affect children's waking lives and possibly their dreams. However, I think they might be able to see their dreams like any video games and not let those dreams affecting their waking lives or they may be able to change scenes or situations just like games in their dreams?

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    5. Gamers are subjected to the various images and emotions that come alongside with the video games they play, which may act in a beneficial or detrimental way. Some gamers spend lengthy hours playing these games, exposing themselves to imagery that could carry over into their dreams, as per the continuity hypothesis. I suspect that when avid gamers play video games, it stimulates rewarding and positive emotions that would carry over into the dreaming mind, reinforcing these positive emotions associated with gaming. It would be worthwhile, if not already, to investigate the addictive qualities of video gaming, especially if gamers do experience the same biochemical rewarding as other addicts do.

      Gamers may also experience aggression or violence in video games that could also be continued into their dreams as well. This is detrimental in younger immature minds such as children who may be more affected by viewing violent games. Long term exposure to violence in waking day life and continued into dreams may leave lasting impressions on gamers, especially in people that have not fully developed reasoning and self-control.

      Many argue that gamers also develop better reaction times, reflexes, and dexterity with learned manipulation of the gaming console and when watching the vivid and fast moving animation after experienced play and many hours logged playing the game. It may be possible these traits of being cautious and anticipatory can be of benefit in video games, dreams, and effective when applied in waking day life. However, from a non-gamer’s perspective, I find it difficult to realize the benefits of video games and the emotional connection behind it.

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    6. Angelica Palillo-BucknallJune 11, 2013 at 3:35 PM

      In regards to gaming and dreaming I believe it is quite possible that dream imagery is affected by gaming. In the textbook by Van De Castle, I recall reading a section where a person shared their story about sports and dreaming. A person who had never played sports or tried a certain technique in gymnastics said that in their dreams they were trying a new technique that had never been done before. In waking day, this person decided to try out this technique and is now well-known for their ability to master this “never been done” technique. The idea that people can write books, create movie plots or even paint a beautiful masterpiece when they are blind, through images from their dreams, leads me to believe that events in waking life would affect dream imagery and vice versa.
      Children and adults who are into gaming may find their dream imagery is similar to the images they see in games. From personal experience, my boyfriend used to play Call of Duty Zombies and it certainly affected my dream imagery. The object was to shoot and kill as many zombies as you can to make it to the next level. From watching him play or just being in the same room as he was playing, I would find that my dreams were highly influenced from this game. I would wake up terrified because I was being chased by zombies and I had run out of bullets to save myself from them. I would have these dreams every time he would play the game, to the point that I asked him not to play whenever I was around because the dreams were so vivid and frightening. I am not sure that any long-term effects would occur from this because through dream interpretation techniques, we have learnt that there are ways of putting a stop to reoccurring dreams if they do not stop on their own. Benefits of gaming may include being able to master skills in waking day that were seen in dreams as a result of gaming, similar to the example discussed above. Detriments include having negative or frightening dreams of violence or strange occurrences that we only see in games.

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    7. I found it interesting to read above comments remarking on the negative consequences of gaming, such as violent gaming leading to violent dreams thus numbing the person to violence and and perhaps becoming violent themselves. Although this is an interesting theory, I have to disagree with it. I know many, many friends and family members who have played all the Call of Duty games, and all sorts of shooter and horror games, that are all decent, civilized people. I think if we want to look at numbing attitudes towards violence, we could even look at those who watch all those crime drama television shows like CSI, Criminal Minds, Law & Order, and the list goes on, and on and on! I think as a society, violent, crime, horror and mystery is now the current must have genre in today's video games, television shows and even books. So negative consequences can arise after long exposure to violent media which could lead to numbed sense to violence.
      I do, however, believe in the continuity of video games with the dreaming mind. Many others I have talked to, as well as myself, have experienced the "Video Game Dream" after playing hours with a video game for days. But that tends to happen with any genre of game. Violent, strategy, arcade, puzzles and so on. This could lead to a scary dream if the game played is violent or scary, or they can be fun strategic dreams if the game played reflects that. I think a negative of having a scary dream from playing scary video games is the same negative consequence as watching a scary movie and having a bad dream- you have a rough night's sleep and wake up feeling scared.
      As for the dopamine properties found in video game playing, dopamine is found in many things we love. Such as chocolate, sex, even kissing. I'm many of us could say we are "addicts" to some of the above, but they are things that are enjoyable to us. I think one would have to explore further reasons as to why a person was "addicted" to gaming - if a true definition of "addiction". Perhaps reality for them is lacking happiness, love and comfort and their way of escaping their reality is through video gaming. In this case, further exploration into the individuals waking life situations and their feelings towards it should be considered. Perhaps some dream therapy with dream interpretation would show that their video game dreams reflect fears, feelings and emotions towards waking day life events or situations.

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  2. After reading about some previously conducted research regarding video game playing and dreams, it appears that those who play increased amounts of video games have a higher content of bizarre dreams. We know that our dreams play a role in our mental state and overall well-being so these bizarre dreams would definitely have an effect on the individual especially if they are negative dreams (may be more anxious or aggressive after a dream etc). Constant game playing and then continuity of these in dreams may make it difficult for the dream to distinguish between what is real life and what is dream imagery. This in turn would make dreams difficult to interpret. This of course all depends on how involved and emotionally attached the dreamer is with the video games. I definitely agree with what Carly has mentioned regarding the immunity to the goriness that occurs in games. Repeated exposure to these events (in waking day life and in dreams) may influence morals and how the individual would deal with particular situations. The benefits Carly mentioned also make sense in terms of finding solutions to various problems in ways that we may not see in our waking lives. Another benefit of video games in terms of dream imagery may be related to lucid dreaming. Previous research has also found that gamers experience more lucid dreams and are able to control the activities that occur in their dreams, which is quite similar to when they are playing video games because dreams and video games can both be considered alternate realities. Perhaps by playing the video games, this provides gamers with a heightened sense of awareness and control which continues into their dreams, producing more lucid dreams. Being able to control aspects of our dreams may be quite beneficial. With that being said, If video games provide more lucid dreams and more control over dreams overall, can video games be a cure for nightmares and bad dreams? With this dream control can individuals reduce the amount of negative dream imagery they experience due to their heightened ability to experience lucid dreams?

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    1. As mentioned in all the above comments thus far, the long term effects of this phenomena do in fact depend on the content of the video game imagery. For instance, there was been research done examining individuals who's parents let them play any sort of video games they want compared to individuals who's parents monitor the type of video games they play. The results had indicated that those who chose to play violent video games had lower sensitivity and didn't think things like drug use, gun use, goriness, provocative language and dress, and other forms of violence were particularly "bad". Thus... these violent video games are desensitizing individuals to what is right or wrong. As mentioned by Carly Barrett these violent situations may become normal to the gamer. This is turn may impact how the individual performs on a daily basis and how they choose to handle waking life situations.Violence may be their means to solving every problem. However... I agree with the above comments as well in so far that if individuals are playing educational or beneficial video games that may have positive impacts in their waking day life (sports games, problem solving games, etc)As mentioned, when placed in certain situations having these skills and the knowledge acquired from the content of the video games played, it may help you out in certain waking day situations. Ex: perhaps strengthening your football skills when on the actual field. Overall, the type of video game played is a very important factor on the content of dream imagery of the individual and their actions in waking day life, whether they be positive or negative.

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    2. As Linsay Blain mentioned about creating/inventing games that can treat nightmares or bad dreams, it could be beneficial clinically for certain disorders. I mentioned about this in my comment before I read other students' replies. I think this phenomena could work even for those dreamers who make them depress. If they play games that are more positive and uplifting, I wonder it helps to change their dream imagery and emotions in their dreams that affect in their waking lives.

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    3. The thought of it being difficult to distinguish between reality and the "dream world" would not be so difficult. I think because you may be actually inside the video game rather than playing it. The gamer may dream he/she is one of the character's in the storyline. It could possibly open gamers to different perspectives and may influence possible waking life decisions. Gamers may find that they are unhappy with their waking day life and that may be the reason they are unsuccessful in the game when they dream. I think the continuity hypothesis allows individuals to really understand their life from a different perspective. For pathological gamblers, the constant dreaming of gambling may not be a useful reinforcer of good behaviour, but rather a detriment to a current problem.
      The focus on negative or violent games is not really a large concern because there are modest correlations between viewing violent stimulus and actually becoming violently aggressive in society. I think it would help clinicians understand an individual and easier to diagnose if their patients had recurring gaming dreams.

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    4. I agree with Lindsay that gaming has been known to cause lucid dreams, and with the control provided by lucid dreams, we can possibly have benefits and try to treat nightmares and bad dreams. Mijung also mentioned playing positive games could maybe help someone have more positive dreams and then have that positivity from the dream refelect in the waking life and help that individual be more positive in their waking life.
      The types of games that individuals play is very important to dreaming and it could be the difference betwen having positive dreams or having negative ones.

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  3. I believe that some of the long term effects of the imagery of gaming is the inability to separate reality from the game. Even though imagery from the games is shown through the dreams, the dreamer may begin to feel those depict every day life. Such as ways to handle situations with other peers, those individuals may begin to handle social conflicts in a violent manner. Situations that do not need to be handled in a violent manner or seen in that way may influence social relationships. In addition that individual may develop an anxiety disorder or live in fear of the dream eventually becoming reality.

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    1. Danielle LachanceJune 13, 2013 at 6:30 PM

      Regarding your last comment, I was wondering the same thing. If the continuity hypothesis is supported through the dreams of gamers, and if those dreams happen to be violent, disturbing, or upsetting, would that not create daytime distress? In order to alleviate distressing feelings, perhaps the gamer would begin avoiding certain social situations or public places and seek refuge in games, only to repeat the process. I think that could be detrimental in this case, as it could potentially leave the gamer vulnerable to anxiety disorders.

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    2. I think that is a very fair and logical point to bring up and all potential implications within this topic are well worth discussing. With that said, I have to respectfully disagree. I'm of the opinion that if a person has the tendency to become violent struggle with anxiety, they will regardless of the video games they play. I think that seeing as gaming is done for entertainment purposes, if anything the imagery from games that appear in a person's subconscious would merely bring them joy and likely calm them. I don't think it would foster negative thoughts, actions, and feelings in waking life, but rather would only serve to benefit them because it is something they associate with happiness and contentment.

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    3. EDIT: ..has the tendency to become violent and/or struggle with anxiety..

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  4. As we know, video games have a goal or missions to complete. There are always a way to success/complete the game and I think it is very addictive challenging for the gamers. Gamers focus so hard to find the keys to complete the game and they enjoy doling it. They must feel big satisfaction when complete the missions of the game. According to Gackenback’s study, among high video game play group who played different formats of video games more frequently, started younger, and for longer duration had fewer negative dreams such as, night terrors, and paralysis, out of body experiences than low video game play group. I think gamers train themselves to solve problems and challenges in the game to complete any missions. As the continuity hypothesis of dreams, if the gamers have any difficult/negative dreams, they may think their dream imagery like a game that they usually play. Therefore, I think they can easily control their emotions in their dreams and dream imagery. I think it will be beneficial for nightmare sufferers. Just like video game players, nightmare sufferers may be able to learn or think that their dreams are like a part of game which they can control or stop when they want.

    Gackenbach, J. I. (2007). Video game play and consciousness development: A replication and extension. International Journal of Dream Research, 2(1), 3-11.

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  5. I agree with a previous comment that a problem may be separating reality from fiction. I can only speak for myself when I say that when I am dreaming it seems very real to me. I am not a gamer myself but I do know from the odd times I've played that there is alto of multi tasking going on with fingers, where as with movies you are just a passive participant soaking up more content. However I would think with gaming it is more repetition. I think that it may not be so much that it is gaming per say, but it what ever you are feeding your mind, tv, book, gaming with leak into our dreams.

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  6. The emotional content of most violent video games in my opinion are likely to be transferred over into peoples dreams because they are strong points upon which an individual can become fixed upon. Video games of playing sports and such aren't nearly as likely to produce such a strong emotional reaction.

    The text talks about how the dreaming mind is capable of much greater use of ones imagination which is utilized when playing video games of any nature as alot of the content that occurs are not realistic in reality. People are not capable of getting up and walking away after being shot at or moving onto teh next mission after having been through some of the scenarios that the games produce.

    Personal I think that it de sensitizes children and adults to violence and provides people with a false sense of reality and what societies expectations are.

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  7. I agree with carly, long-term effect depend on the context of the game. People participate or watch violent game can influence their dreaming imagery. For example, when my watch violent movie or scary show, she gets nightmares. She'll wake up and started shouting and crying.

    I think gamers trained themselves as Mijung mentioned. They play the game for fun and the goal is to win. Therefore, they may not experience bad nightmares as much. However, for those who have encountered terror or panic a lot may suffer from flashbacks and nightmares.

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  8. The long-term effects of this phenomena in respect to gaming depend entirely on the subjective experience of the gamer. Since dreams are widely subjective in their content, the presence of gaming in dreams can have beneficial and negative effects. However, it could provide quite useful in analyzing a patient that may have an internet addiction (which is now classified as a disorder in DSM-V), it could give insight to symptoms of anxiety and depressive disorders (spending time playing video games rather than spending social time with others or getting a job). It may allow the gamer to evaluate his gameplay or may allow the dreams to have messages that are displayed through gameplay. The biggest implication would be the individual could develop an addiction due to constant presence of gameplay throughout the dream imagery and waking day life. When exposed to something for an indefinite period of time, one becomes overindulged. This may affect the gamer socially, vocationally, and occupationally. The detriments of this would include a greater incidence of addiction, anxiety (because gaming is very emotional arousing for some people), and depression (when the game is no longer available for them, they will become moody). The benefits of this could include a "calming effect" as the dreams can be familiar and interesting that people enjoy sleeping 7-8 hours/night, some people may be happier, and allows the gamer to reflect on the waking life gamer experience.

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    1. As mentioned, the effects of the dream will be subject to the gamer's impression with the game. I don't think the nature of the game, such as violence, will have anymore long term affects on an individual whom is over exposed with dreams than an individual whom has not dreamt of the game.I feel if an individual is dreaming of the game, they have unresolved feelings towards the particular game that the unconscious mind is exemplifying. This could be anything from emotions directed towards the violence within the game or the individual's obsession with the game. Thus, I think long-term, if an individual is obsessed, it will only feed their addiction greater. However, a possible benefit of dreaming of the game for the gamer is to see the game in a different light. If the gamer comes upon a difficult task which they could not solve immediately in their waking life, dreaming about it might allow for the task to be seen differently and to the point it might become resolved through the dream imagery.

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    2. Danielle LachanceJune 13, 2013 at 7:06 PM

      Initially I was wondering if the dreams gamers have that support the continuity hypothesis could be detrimental in the sense that the dreams reflect the problems or situations in the games rather than a reflection of the dreamers themselves. If this were the case, then I think the dreams could further the divide between fiction and reality. However, after using TSM and the 2A Method, dreams that seemed to be mere reflections of a book I had been reading before bed still offered an incredible amount of insight into my needs, desires, and so on, rather than the characters' needs, etc. in the book. If a gamer's dream happens to be a reflection of the events their character went through in a game earlier that day, or replicates imagery used on the game, etc., perhaps the content can provide important insights for the dreamer and the dream imagery is merely a way of shaping these problems into recognizable images.

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  9. I agree with many of the statements above. The long term effects of this phenomena depend on a few very important things. I think the content of the video game will have a huge subjective impact of the user. This however will depend on the user's personal expereinces and past. For instance someone who is playing a violent video game who was a vertran may expereince more negative recolections than someone who has never expereinced that sort of setting.

    With this said, there could be some very beneficial clinical implications of this. As mentioned above, what people do during their day will show up as imagery within their dreams. The more emotionally salient that these waking day events are, the more likely that indivudal will dream about the events as imagery. With this said, people who experience large amounts of trauma and negative events will likley recall these events in their dreams for a long period of time. The next step for clinicians would be to examine how we can decrease these emotion surrunding the day life or if there is any way to override the emotions with high amounts of postive events.

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    1. I believe that long-term effects will depend on the type of video game that is being played. If the games have negative connotation or violence, then it is predicted that the dream imagery will also be negative.
      With gamers that spend hours and hours on games every day will have trouble separating the game world from the world of reality. This has been show to increase mental disorders.
      The continuity hypothesis would be an explanation here if the game content in the waking life is extremely violent then the imagery in the dream will also be very violent. The emotional connection with the game content can also change the individuals actions, possibly becoming more violent in real world situations.

      Not all video games are negative and violent though. Some individuals learn easier through educational games than a normal teacher in a class room. This could be a positive dream outcome if the individual dreams again about the information learned in the game.
      The dependence of dream imagery has a direct reliance on the contents of the games being played; either negative and violent or positive and educational. The amount of emotional connection the person has with the game content will also predict the occurrence of game content in their dreams.
      It would be interesting to know how many hours a gamer would have to play in order to see an increase in game dream imagery for individuals.

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    2. Prabhjot DhaliwalJune 11, 2013 at 3:24 PM

      Along with many of the above comments, I feel that long-term effects of this phenomena depend on the type of game the person is play and it’s subjective impact. I think that the age of the gamer is one major factor that influences subjective impact. Younger gamers are more likely to have more negative dream imagery as a result of violent games. Furthermore, the more the violence in a game, the greater impact it will have on any aged gamer. As Carley Barrett stated, I believe there are both benefits and detriments to be expected from this phenomena. Gamers can learn from the video games they play and apply those to their waking life if they are ever confronted in a negative situation. On the other hand, such violence can influence vicious acts such as stealing and violence.
      Prabhjot Dhaliwal

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    3. Maureen PartridgeJune 11, 2013 at 4:43 PM

      Very interesting topic, and above comments.
      As already mentioned, my first thought of a detriment would be the effects of psychological stress one's body can be put in during prolonged sessions of violent/aggressive video games, or, even games where there is a need to be alert and physical for extended periods of time. Being in a state of emotional stress for a large portion of your waking day while gaming, and then reliving those waking day emotions through dream imagery could continue to cause undue stress on the dreamer. This could possibly cause physical ailments like headaches, muscle pains, stress could lead to heart problems etc.
      Benefits could include, as also mentioned in other comments, gaming providing a confidence builder in those people who may have been too shy to perhaps try (in waking day life) the sports or events they play in video games, such as hang gliding, surfing, snowboarding, bowling etc. Another benefit could come from the "fit" type games such as dancing, exercise routines etc. If the person doing these types of games feels more emotional positive about themselves, in their physical well-being and fitness levels in their waking day life, that in turn will reflect on having positive dream imagery.
      I know from personal experience I have done yoga and meditation on my Wii board and found it soothing and relaxing. I wonder if gaming research focused on those type of games if we would see more benefits between gaming, waking day emotions and dream imagery.

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    4. From what has been discussed in lecture about the continuity hypothesis as well as recapped for us in the post, I do believe that can be long-term effects of this phenomena with respect to gaming. The continuity hypothesis is dominant and has more evidence suggesting that dreams reflect waking life, therefore if one was to spend a lot of time immersed into the gaming world, as most gamers do, then the imagery that they continuously see will be reflected in their dreams. In previous posts the point that it is dependent on the type of gaming needs to be taken into consideration, but the many violent and explicit imagery that many video games entail would have a long term effect on an individual. When your waking life has violence and your dream life has violence, violence would because very prominent in your life. This could lead to violent behaviour in reality.

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  10. Emily Reavie (0487529)June 11, 2013 at 7:34 PM

    I find it very interesting that what people do during the day will show up as imagery in their dreams. It is also interesting that the more emotionally outstanding their waking day lives are, the more likely they are to occur in their dreams. The continuity hypothesis was supported with gamers and this phenomena can have long-term effects. As many people have mentioned above, I believe that the long-term effects depend on the type of gaming involved. Especially teenagers, individuals can become desensitized to violence in video games and this can lead to more violence in their waking life and their actions. Making an individual more violent can be a detriment of the continuity hypothesis because of the gamer. However, gaming can be positive such as providing confidence to the gamer. Playing a game which they excel at if they are socially insecure can be very helpful. If someone is afraid to join a baseball team but really likes baseball then they can play on their video game and improve their confidence that way. This would be the same thing if you were beginning a new sport and needed practise to build up your self-confidence. Waking day life circumstances like this will often reflect in more positive dreams. I believe that both detriments and benefits of gaming can have long-term effects on the dreamers as these two examples have proven.

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    1. Individuals who are gamers are found to follow the continuity hypotheses which suggests that every day life events will find itself in the dreams of individuals and the more prominent the daily life events the more probable the dream will occur about that event. The type of imagery present in the dream of the gamers depends on the content of the game itself. For example, if the game the gamer plays if full of shooting others and battling then the dreams could be full of violence and war-like scenarios. On the other hand, if the gamer plays games full of puzzles and brainteasers then the individual may have dreams of dealing with riddles and problems. If these games are played for significant amounts of time during the day, the intensity of the games can increase in the gamers mind and as a result the gamer will have more dreams about that particular scenario. Long-term effects of playing these games could result in more intense the dream and the more of a reoccurrence the dreams may have during sleep. If the games are violent then this may direct the dreams to more and more violent dreams which may inadvertently upset the dreamer. Benefits may include sharpening of the mind using puzzles and quizzes inserted into the video games. These video games can help the user to concentrate on positive and interesting puzzles which can increase mental functioning.

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    2. I am not a gamer but back when guitar hero first came out I remember playing it with my family for quite a few hours one night. When I went to bed, as soon as I closed my eyes I saw the game play before me. When I fell asleep I remember dreaming about guitar hero as well, seeing the screen as if I was actually playing it again. This is my experience and I believe that gamers will dream about what they play and this could have negative effects; however, it could have some positive ones as well.

      If a person is playing a game for hours on end then when they go to bed that game may be playing in their head still. If they haven't beaten a level they need to they may be thinking of that and strategies to help them win. This could influence the person's dreaming and there is a good chance they will dream about the game. Like many have said above, this could be a negative effect especially since a lot of games nowadays are filled with violence. If a person is subject to a ton of violence all day through a video game then they could very well have very negative, even bad, dreams at night. This may make the person more sensitized to violence and may even make them a more violent person. However, if they go to bed maybe thinking of ways to win and they are strategizing they may dream about a solution that could help them win a level. It seems trivial to me but for a gamer this could be a positive aspect of dreaming about their game.

      Again like others have said, people could very well have positive dreams about their gaming if they are playing pleasant games and games that help keep their brain thinking. Dreaming about this could help the person physically and mentally and they may stay sharp if they are dreaming about such puzzles and brain teasers.

      As for long term effects I'm not sure if gaming would do that to dreaming. Most, I say most because they are a few older gamers, will grow out gaming all day and all night and their dreams will not be so full of images of their games. Therefore, I do not think there would be long term negative effects of gaming on dreams. People who play games so often may have more intense and vivid dreams throughout their life but this could be a positive aspect. I think more research should be conducted on gaming in respect to people's dreams and it would be interesting to see what type of games make more intense imagery and if there really is long term effects on a person's dreaming if they are quite the gamers in the adolescent/ young adult life.

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  11. As Kasey mentioned above, the continuity hypothesis allows us to look into the long term effects of gaming on dreaming and therefore on waking life. As many people have mentioned, gaming could be used positively to help individuals perform better or function at a higher level in social settings. In contrast to this, I worry about the use of games in a more negative way. What if researchers were able to use the games to create product placement in our dreams? We are already bombarded by social media to buy specific products, so what is stopping developers from using the technology backwards and putting specific products in our dreams? In regards to children or young adults that already have aggressive behaviours, there is some fear that these tendencies could become worse through waking day gaming.

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    1. To be considered as a gamer, long hours need to be spent playing video games. To dedicate so much of one’s day to a video game some emotional attachment will be present. I was never a gamer myself, but do know friends and family I would consider ‘hard-core gamers.’ A trend that I have found is the games that are most addicting involve violent or illegal actions, such as killing or theft. The nature of video games involves the waking day person to make actions that will have consequences. For example, the gamer chooses the correct order of buttons to kill someone and often has a choice of weapon.
      Now in saying that not all video games involve violent situations. Therefore the true benefit or detriment of the continuity hypothesis and video games depends of the content of the game. However, I do not believe that there would be any true benefits for video games cascading into dreams. Non-violent games would be less detrimental to the psyche of the individual than violent games. Violent video games provide concern because there are not usually realistic consequences and the theory of desensitization regarding exposure comes into play. Someone who spends lots of time playing violent games and is unable to escape the harsh imagery may begin to believe that, that is how the world really works.

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    2. There are many things to consider when thinking of the consequences of playing video games. Some of these being how often the game is being played, how emotional the individual is who is playing the game, and why they are playing this particular game. All games have a goal in which an individual is aiming to beat. Some games seem to be more for fun and are not as violent, others are more violent and require the individual to do things that they would not do in their waking life. Video game imagery being portrayed in dreams may be beneficial in some aspects, one being creativity. Negative aspects being more obvious, being the negative imagery that may be portrayed in video games and then again in dreams. I agree with the statement above that when the video game has more violent scenes then this will be shown in the dream imagery as violent imagery. Future research could be done by looking into different types of video games to determine the real effects of these specific games.

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  12. I definitely believe that the imagery of video games can show up in one’s dreams after continually play. I agree with the above statement, that it is important to understand how often and how long these video games are being played and especially the type of video games. As far as long term effects, I believe there are more negative effects. For example, the type of games being played, violent game would definitely reveal negative effects not just in dream imagery but in waking life to. In addition, I also think that there could be a negative effect on social life for those who play video games, where they get absorbed in the video game and forget about the real world outside. I think it is important for parents to be monitoring their adolescents and teenagers on what type and how long these video games are being played. For example, I believe the computer should always be in a room that is open to the family, not in a bedroom where the child cannot be watched. Moreover, I believe that a limited amount of playing video games is significant for there is not much benefits to playing them for long periods of time.

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    1. More than the duration and even type of game that is played, it may be important to keep in the mind each gamer's individual traits such as his/her interest level in the particular game (ranging from fleeting to obsessive) as well as baseline tendencies that might affect how the game's imagery affects the player. Violence in popular media, for instance, perhaps the foremost concern raised in this discussion, cannot be definitively linked to subsequent violence in real-life due to the innumerable personality types that absorb such media and react very differently. A carryover from media to dreams, however, might well provide strong indication of the significance of its certain imagery to the viewer or gamer, which from there can be understood more effectively and with higher individuality.

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  13. I also believe that the imagery of video games can show up in ones dreams after playing them. When someone continually plays video games in their waking day the imagery from these games will be on their mind and show up in their dreams, just like a soccer player would have dream imagery related to soccer or a musician would have dream imagery related to music. I also agree with the above statements, that it would be important to understand the duration of the video game play as well as the video game content. I think the content of the video game would be extremely important to know because I think video games that are violent would arouse stronger emotions in someone and therefor would be more likely to be evident in ones dream imagery. I agree with the above statement that violent video games would also elicit negative imagery and/or emotions for a dreamer not only in their dreams but in their waking life. I also agree with the above and think that a parent should monitor their child's activity in regards to video games. If a parent does not have any control over the amount of gaming their child does then their child might become consumed with them and yes, have a negative effect on their social life. I think that it is important for parents to do this because like the above statement I also do not think there is much benefit for a child to continuously play video games.

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  14. Many of the games out there are filled with high intensity and quite a bit of negative imagery. For example, games such as Halo and Left for Dead have quite a bit of negative graphic imagery (e.g. dead bodies etc.). These games also have a fair amount of violence, with shooting and other warfare. In thinking of the continuity hypothesis, if these games are played in waking day, similar negative imagery and emotions will likely appear in dreams. Such negative imagery can lead to nightmares. I think individuals who are chronic gamers will likely suffer long-term effects from these games such as nightmares. These nightmares could also lead to sleep deprivation, which in itself can lead to a number of health problems. I think because most video games are violent in nature there would be more detriments from waking day events entering the dream state than benefits.

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    1. This is an interesting finding that is very dependent on the type of games played. If the games are violent, with a lot of illegal content and negative imagery, then negative imagery will also be evident in the dream. If this is continuously occurring, then negative imagery is all the individual will be experiencing (in waking day life and dreams). It brings the questions to the possibility that this could affect an individuals psychological health. On the other hand, it could be beneficial if the video game has positive imagery.

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    2. I personally have found that many of my dreams consist of imagery from what I have experienced the previous day. Dreams can affect your waking life in the sense that your dreams may or may not be able to determine how you act and feel the days following your dream. In today's society, there are many violent games that people love to play. Also, there is a decrease in physical activity because people are spending more time playing these violent games. The actions of the gamer (which would be playing these games) would most likely show up in imagery in their dreams. This could affect how the gamer sees waking life. I believe that the long term effects would be that they would begin to believe that the violence from these games are okay in real life. I think there are detriments from this. Not only because of the violence, but also the decrease in physical activity can lead to many other medical issues.

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    3. Rebecca:

      Further research needs to be conducted in order to determine the specifics of this perceived 'negative influence' gaming has on the gamer and his/her dreams.

      If the weapons used within the video-game do not reflect any that a human could access in waking life would the impact of their dream imagery be reduced in waking life? Are games that involve the shooting of animals just as detrimental as those that involve the killing of humans? Is it the violence or the type of victim that makes the impact?

      I think it would be interesting to present the Continuity Hypothesis of Dreaming (as well as the findings listed above) to individuals who have the power to create video-games and see what they are able to come up with.

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  15. It does not surprise me that emotionally salient events from video games are dreamt about and portrayed in the dream imagery of the gamer. I do, however, see potential long –term effects that would be both detrimental and beneficial to the gamer. Since research has suggested gaming imagery continues into dreaming life, I could see gamers becoming more susceptible to addiction since they are so attached to the video game. If the gamer is dreaming of themselves in the game for instance, they can easily build emotional attachments to the game. For benefits in relation to the continuity hypothesis, research has suggested that learning material before sleep improves memory consolidation of that learned material (Van de Castle, 2004). Therefore, I believe that if the type of game was educational and interactive then the information the gamer had just learned would be more readily consolidated in dreaming. Additionally, I think in many ways most video games can spark one’s imagination since many games involve a fictional foundation. If the creative and imaginative component of video games was carried into dreaming I feel that this could potentially create more vivid and visionary dream imagery.

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    1. I agree with Chelsea's comment that dreaming about video games can start or increase the person's addiction to playing. Dreaming about being in the game or playing the game will most likely get the person anxious and excited to wake up and play again which is dangerous when it comes to becoming addicted to playing video games.

      Just like others have said, it also depends on the type of video game. If the dreamer is often playing violent video games, they are likely to have violent dreams which can increase violence in the dreamer's waking actions. Just as we are influenced by the violence on television, I believe we can be easily influenced by violence in our dreams.

      Some people may also have a violent dream after playing a violent video game and misinterpret it as telling them to seek revenge or use physical action in their waking life, or just that violence is okay.

      I have also learned with life that we stress ourselves out when we dream about things we already do or think about too much in our waking lives. For example, dreaming about work only stresses me out about work more. In the gaming situation, dreaming about video games after playing them may only make the dreamer stress about/think about their gaming even more and possibly lead to addiction.

      Violent video games can bring violent dreams with negative imagery and recurring negative imagery in dreams can lead to waking day distress, anxiety, depression and much more. This is another potential long-term effect of dreaming about gaming.

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  16. If the continuity hypothesis states that more emotionally salient events are more likely to show up in dreams, then it would seem that dreams of video games occurring in people who play video games may be correlated with addiction. A person's gaming in waking life must be significant in order for it to occur in their dreams as well, and this could be a sign of an unhealthy obsession.

    As many people have already mentioned, the long term effects of this phenomenon depend on the type of video game being played. If the game is positive, such as Wii Fit or a Leapfrog type game, then dreaming about these could perhaps reinforce healthy behaviors, increase confidence or improve skill and memory. If the video game contains negative imagery, however, such as violent games like Grand Theft Auto, then this negative imagery could appear in dreams as well. This could reinforce negative or violent behaviors as well interfere with sleep quality and negatively affect mood. In either case, if a video game is present in both waking life and dreams, then a person may be more likely to have an unhealthy obsession with it. This could lead to addiction, which could negatively affect other aspect of a person's life.

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  17. Michelle, I don't know if dreaming about gaming has all that much to do with obsession necessarily. I think that the continuity hypothesis is correct is predicting that waking day events that occur more often are more likely to appear in dreams. But that doesn't automatically mean that a repetitive practice in daily life is an obsession.
    On a positive note, research has actually shown that avid video game players are more socially active, less likely to be obese and have more developed visuospatial abilities (Gray, 2012). Also, violent video games have been found to be a healthy means of managing hostility for those inclined toward that behaviour (Gray, 2012). They are better able to deal with these feelings, whether through the act of playing the games or confronting the imagery in waking and/or dreaming life.
    Grey, P. (2012). The many benefits, for kids, of playing video games. Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/201201/the-many-benefits-kids-playing-video-games

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  18. Samantha EllertonJune 13, 2013 at 10:01 AM

    As others have noted, if a gamer is dreaming frequently about the imagery experienced while gaming during the day it does seem logical that the intensity and desire to continue playing may start to occur. This is due to the fact stated above in that the more emotionally salient waking day events are more likely to have this imagery appear in one’s dreams. Therefore I think the possible long-term effects of this phenomenon could be a possible addiction/obsession for playing the game, as the gamer him/herself would be experiencing this imagery both purposely during the waking day and uncontrollably during sleep. Alternatively I think it could also be possible to have the reverse effect for some people, in cases where this imagery causes frustration and anxiety causing people to realize from their dreams that this habit needs to stop or become less frequent.

    However I think the possibility of both the pros and cons for this phenomenon is heavily determined by the nature of the games being played. I think if the games are violent then the continuity of this imagery into dreams could signal the need for this habit to become less frequent, as the emotions experienced may be more negative. On the other hand if the game is perhaps less intense and more positive then when this imagery is continued into dreams it may still have the effect of arousing positive emotions which then may in turn have the gamer continue to have the desire to game the next day, in attempts to continue these positive emotions.

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    1. Breanne McErleanJune 13, 2013 at 2:52 PM

      As noted by many I too believe that the type of video game determines the severity of any long term effects that may occur. Also the amount of time spent gaming would impact the possibility of any long term effects. Gamers who spend extended periods of time playing a game develop stronger emotional connections to the game over time. Due to these stronger connections triumphs and defeats throughout the game become more meaningful for an individual in waking day life. These correlating highs and lows would be reflected in his dream possibly by intense sadness or greater level of confidence. These dreams in turn would affect his waking day attitude which could produce negative or positive behaviour depending on the social environment. Gamers may also become consumed by the game and, for example, the inability to complete a puzzle within the game may lead gamers dwelling over during waking day and dreaming creating more frustration for them. Although games no matter how violent they appear are non-life threatening to the gamer. However, dreams may appear in different forms and it is possible that a gamer could experience a dream as if they were in the game themselves. For more violent games this could prove to be very terrifying causing nightmares and sleep disturbances. On the opposite side, the dreamer could enjoy the dream and attempt to replicate it in real life causing major problems within their environment. This research can be both beneficial and detrimental in accordance with the type of game being played. As violent games may produce more problems in terms of how an individual’s self-image and societal views, while puzzle games and delightful games may boost a person confidence, intelligence and happiness by reflecting these images from waking day life games to dreams.

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  19. Shadiya GouldbourneJune 13, 2013 at 2:19 PM

    Media is extremely perverse in the way it shapes how we view things in waking life, so I don't think its that much of a stretch to say that long term effects could occur with in respects to gaming and dream imagery. Gaming is an activity that can easily occupy your days, and to some intense gamers these video games become their alternate reality to actual reality, especially in with second life type games. So dreaming about these events can be just as salient as actual waking day events. If the imagery is violent and dangerous in the game, and reflected in the dream, the long term outcome could be negative, especially if recurrent. It could develop into nightmares, and possibly trauma if vivid and intense enough.
    If the events of the game are pretty tame, and is being reflected in dream imagery, then there is no real harm. Dreams are a place where things do not necessarily have to make sense, so dreaming about a game isn't bad.

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  20. As everyone else tends to be saying i think that the more emotionally hitting the game is, the more likely it will effect the gamers dream. Violent games have more emotions attached at first, but over time it will become less emotional and may not appear as frequently in dreams. One consequence of gamers dreaming about the game could be a improvement in performance, since they are thinking about the game and playing it over as they are sleeping.

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  21. I think that it is valid to believe that long term effects may occur. Like most have said with the increase in gaming, especially long periods of time, the individual often checks out of reality and is in the game. When the individual checks out of reality it can be considered that they believe that the events occurring in the game are happening in their waking day. Which as the Continuity Hypothesis states: dreams often are a reflection of waking day events. Long term effects of the increase of gaming imagery in the individuals dreams could lead to the person playing more in order to get their fix, lack of social and physical activity may also occur, in addition the individual may experience sleep problems; this may be caused by over-stimulation from intense gaming sessions.

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    1. Bethany de KoningJune 13, 2013 at 7:36 PM

      Gamers dreams about games could potentially cause an obsession. The dreams could cause the gamer to continuously think about the game and it could become obsession and the gamer would revolve their life around this game. This could also lead to the gamer to model their actions after the game. This could be a good thing or bad thing, depending on the game.

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  22. If the continuity hypothesis has been seen in gamers and it suggests that emotionally salient images from waking day will be a part of our dreaming life, this could be very helpful in a clinical practice. This would help the clinician easily determine what the individual processes as emotionally salient information and what this means to them.
    The fact that gamers seem to find gaming an emotionally salient experience is interesting in itself but there is also, as many pepole have said, a worrisome aspect to this. People who are defined as "gamers" tend to become very invloved with their games and play constantly. For many gamers their waking day life is already consumed with games, and as Bethany has stated, if their waking life thoughts and dreaming life thoughts are focused on a game (many of which ae not realistic) this could possibly have a negative effect on an individuals thought process, infuencing a more intense involvement in gaming.

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    1. I believe that the content of the games that are being played would highly influence the type of dream content. As content in video games has become increasingly violent i think that they could create emotional images that would show in the individuals dream. I believe that long-term effects could include more violent tendencies during waking day life. If waking day emotions are due to extremely violent imagery and that continues into dreaming then it is most likely that violence will play a role in the individuals daily life. Another long term effect may be seen with role playing games where individuals get to have a virtual life. Playing a game that basically gives you a second life can be not only exciting but may overtake your own life. Some gamers start to live vicariously through the game rather than living their actual waking life. With this their dreams would begin to reflect the emotions and connections primarily with the game over their own personal waking life or reality.

      I think that one of the detriments is just a change in demeanor of the individual. In both my examples people rely their emotions on their game rather than the reality they are living in. Gaming however can create a sense of escape from daily life. It may allow people to take negative emotions and turn them more positive which could also allow for a better waking life.

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  23. I agree with the above statement from holly. I feel that if we can determine the correlation between gamers and their images from waking and dreaming life it can perhaps could be beneficial in clinical practice. I personally play video games to a certain extent. I do not play hours on end like some individuals i know, however I do agree that intense video game play can alter ones emotions sometimes for the worst. Many individual who are avid gamers do experience great deals of emotions during game play, some positive, but the majority of the feelings they experience are negative, filled with anger. Like bethany stated, many gamers are so into their games they believe game situations can be real like situations. Which in many cases is not realistic or accurate. This can put the the individual in a mind set that can possible harm themselves or others. Their thought process can be very miss guided from playing games and thus can bring these beliefs into their waking life. Many gamers began suffering from depression when playing games, as well as deep isolation from the outside world. This can in turn show negative signs on their social skills, ultimately turning the individual into a closed, confused person. I believe if we can find out the images individual take with them through gaming into their waking and dreaming lives, inspect these images, and come to a conclusion as to why certain gamers experience similar images this could possible help researchers understand and help individual who are dealing with this intense sometimes addiction.

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    1. It is not surprising that the continuity hypothesis was found to be supported with gamers. When a person spends such a significant amount of time viewing certain images, it is quite logical that these images would then appear in his or her dreams. As others have already mentioned, I also believe that whether or not the dream imagery that occurs results in benefits or detriments to a person really depends on the nature of the game. While there are video games with positive content, such as those that promote physical activity, most popular games tend to encourage negative themes like violence. The emotional and stressful images that can appear in the dreams of those involved in this type of gaming can result in sleep issues, such as nightmares and insomnia. Many people can also become desensitized and believe that the fighting and aggression that appear in these games are part of normal, everyday life. Some games even allow you to design characters that look like you or have the same features and attributes, further blurring the lines between fantasy and reality.


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  24. I feel as though this phenomenon is quite possible and quite relevant in regards to gamers. Although I currently do not partake in any sort of computer or video gaming I do recall such events happening when I once did. I remember as many gamers do spending countless hours playing, you can get so immersed into your character that you feel as though you have almost become them. In a sense this may seem like an addiction and for some it becomes this. I feel that in regards to gaming the intensity of the game can have a severe impact on the dreamer have similar events show up in their dreams. I use to be sports gamer and due to the fact there was not an emotional tie for me my sleep was not affected very much. On the other hand I am familiar with someone who plays a lot of role playing games. We have spoken on several occasions about him becoming that character when he dreams at night. Due to the addiction and constant drive to move further within the game he found himself planning routes and options while he is asleep. I feel that there should not be too many long term affects as long as the person does not find them self fanaticising about the game during the day. From another perspective I feel that this phenomenon could cause an obsession with trying to attain more. I feel that gaming should be just for that, a leisure way to burn a couple hours. If the gamer finds themselves heavy into a dream about their game than it is definitely time to take a step back.

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  25. This is a very interesting finding, and one that I do not find altogether surprising given experiences from my own life. My boyfriend plays a lot of video games, and he has some of the most detailed dreams I've ever heard (i.e., he can describe every aspect in incredible detail; for example, "with my left arm, I reached... etc."), which always amazes me. In addition, I've noticed that many of his dreams are filled with action and are clearly derived from all of the time he spends playing video games. More specifically, his dreams frequently involve video game-style combat, and often contain zombies and other similar elements that correspond to the games that he plays. In this regard, it appears that the continuity hypothesis is truly supported.

    However, I find the fact that gaming dreams are emotionally salient rather troubling, as it displays the significant effect of gaming on individuals, including the fact that the behaviour may eventually become excessive. In this respect, long-term effects of video game dreams may serve to solidify the game's place in the dreamer's life, and vice versa. Overall, though, I feel that simply dreaming about a game will not increase the frequency of gaming behavioutr, but is rather a reflection of how much time the individual spends playing video games in their waking life. Moreover, many individuals play video games in a healthy, moderate way, and in these instances I don't believe that video game dreams are a sign of addiction, but rather, the level of intensity of action that the game brings to the gamer's life, regardless of how long that is.

    ~ Ellen Coombs

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    1. * Misspelled "behaviour" in the second paragraph

      ~ Ellen Coombs

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  26. I believe that people are highly influenced by their dreams. I believe that most people view their dreams as a reflection of their unconscious, and thus who they are at their core. Following the Continuity Hypothesis of Dreaming, if an individual was playing violent games and began to have violent dreams they may view that violence to be an aspect of their core self. This could influence their self-concept, as well as their future choices.

    Furthermore, imagery caused by gaming could severely impact an individual’s dream interpretations. They may fail to realize that their dreams were influenced by the games they were playing and then develop interpretations that do not truly apply to their waking life. If using dream interpretation in a clinical setting this influence could be extremely detrimental to the health of the patient. It follows that their treatment would fail to progress along the appropriate path.

    This knowledge could also be beneficial. If a violent individual were to spend time playing games that inspired feelings of peace it is possible that their dream imagery would be altered. It could be used as a therapeutic technique given the right circumstances.

    A close friend of mine is a gamer and they have some of the most innovative and inspiring dreams I have ever heard. These dreams positively impact their life choices, and have enabled them to achieve great things. The Continuity Hypothesis can be applied in this circumstance as many aspects of the dreams have roots in the games played, but this individual’s unconscious mind elaborates on such details to an extent that is truly phenomenal.

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  27. Ashleigh-Anne GureckasJune 14, 2013 at 11:55 AM

    Dreams and video games both represent alternate realities. Though dreams are caused by the human mind and games are controlled by technology, playing video games has been shown to increase a persons ability to lucid dream (is a dream in which one is aware that one is dreaming). If a game that someone is laying is very violent and has very negative imagery that influences their dreams, the dreamer may become very used to these images and think it is normal. This could be a detriment to their behaviour and actions in waking life.
    I agree with Heidi Stone in the comment above that in the opposite way if a violent individual spent time playing a game that aroused feelings of peace and serenity, maybe it could influence calm dream imagery and relieve any symptoms of violence of behavioural issues in waking life.
    Some gamers play too much, and some people play video games at a very good and moderate amount. I believe that the amount of time spent playing the game may have an impact on the influence on dream imagery and and having long-term effects or not.

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    1. Nathylova NesmonJune 18, 2013 at 4:43 PM

      I agree with Ashleigh that the frequency of gaming may play an important factor in dreaming. The frequency of gaming is important because, the impact that playing games for 50 hours a week has on an individual will differ greatly from the an individual who only plays video games 25 hours a week. Someone who play games for 25 hours a week might not have any dream imagery in relation to the games played within that week. In contrast, a person who play games for 50 plus hours a week might experience a couple of dreams relating to the games played within that week. Long term effects of this matter would depend on the gaming frequency of each individual. It is impossible to generalize any long term effects in reference to my previous points because gaming is subjective in various ways.

      Furthermore, the types of games played should be taken into consideration as well. As violent games will impact the dream imagery of an individual negatively as opposed to non-violent games. It is however beneficial to the individual who continues to play non-violent games. In comparison, it is rather detrimental to the individual who continuously play violent games.

      Overall, The subjectivity of this topic must be taken into account. As some individual can play violent games and not internalize it and effect their actions. However, other individuals may internalize the emotional salient events during their waking day life resulting in dream imagery relating to their gaming.

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